|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The kill probability (Pk) is determined by several factors, including aspect (head-on interception, side-on or tail-chase), altitude, the speed of the missile and the target, and how hard the target can turn. Typically, if the missile has sufficient energy during the terminal phase, which comes from being launched at close range to the target from an aircraft with an altitude and speed advantage, it will have a good chance of success. This chance drops as the missile is fired at longer ranges as it runs out of overtake speed at long ranges, and if the target can force the missile to turn it might bleed off enough speed that it can no longer chase the target. Operationally, the missile, which was designed for beyond visual range combat, has a Pk of 59% (17 missiles for 10 kills). The targets included six MiG-29s, a MiG-25, a MiG-23, a Galeb and a US Army Blackhawk that was targeted by mistake.